Diseases and Other Conditions
Three types of malnutrition may be observed in alcoholics, primary malnutrition due to a decreased intake of nutrients, secondary malnutrition caused by an impairment in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, and tertiary malnutrition due to an alteration in the ability to convert nutrients to their active coenzyme forms, resulting in nutritional complications that potentiate the direct effects of alcohol.
Excessive drinking depletes the body of nutrients leading to kidney damage and cirrhosis of the liver, and ultimately to death. Alcohol has no net benefit to health and is not an essential nutrient in any way. If you can not avoid...
Anemia occurs when the concentration of the pigment
hemoglobin in red blood cells falls below normal. Hemoglobin is
essential for delivering oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues.
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. Although iron
deficiency is generally the most common cause of anemia, there are
other nutritional, genetic, and environmental causes as well.
Iron was one of the first substances identified as essential in the
human diet. The physiologic function of iron in hemoglobin and its
role in anemia was determined over a two hundred year period from the
By World Health Organization criteria, anemia is considered to
exist when the non-pregnant adult female...
Angina Pectoris ("Angina") Is a recurring pain or discomfort in
the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive
enough blood. It is a common symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD),
which occurs when vessels that carry blood to the heart become narrowed
and blocked due to atherosclerosis. The main cause of narrowing of the
blood vessels is age, but this is accelerated by cigarette smoking. To
a lesser extent people with a high cholesterol level, people who are
obese (overweight), and diabetics are also more at risk.
Diagnosis of angina is largely from the history. That is, there has
been pain, usually brought on...
Canker sores (aphthous ulcers) are painful ulcers that occur in
the lining of the mouth. Ulcers are not cancerous, but they may be
contagious. The mouth and adjacent areas are involved. Canker sores can
affect both sexes, all ages, but is more common in females. The typical
appearance involves an erythematous periphery with a white or yellow
depressed center. Healing within 10 to 14 days is the rule.
Causes: Viral (coxsackievirus, herpesvirus), systemic illness
(Crohn's disease, lupus, Behcet's disease, erythema multiforme),
toothpaste (sodium lauryl sulfate), stress, and smoking. Dental trauma,
vitamin B12, folate, and iron deficiency have also been implicated in
Treatment: Symptomatic relief can be obtained by the...
Fungus infections are named for the part of the body they
infect. Tinea corporis is a fungus infection of the skin on the body
(corporis is the Latin word for body). If you have this infection, you
may see small, red spots that grow into large rings almost anywhere on
your arms, legs or chest.
When a fungus grows in the moist, warm area of the groin, the rash
is called tinea cruris. (Cruris comes from the Latin for leg.) The
common name for this infection is "jock itch." Tinea cruris often
occurs in men, especially if they often wear athletic equipment.
Tinea capitis, which is usually called "ringworm,"...
Autoimmune diseases can be varied, and there are certain variations of this disease that are known to primarily target the skin. That said, it is also important to also mention that most, if not all autoimmune diseases are known to cause skin conditions such as rashes, skin irritations and signs of ageing. Therefore, besides being a manifestation of the autoimmune syndrome, skin problems can actually also be a form of autoimmune disease per se.
The main symptoms of autoimmune skin diseases are more or less the same that are exhibited by things such as smoking, stress and nutrient deficiencies, among others....
The disciplines of nutrition and behavior are not usually
considered to be closely related, but there are infact several key
areas of overlap between these fields. Behavior factors determine the
choice of foods in the diet, and any attempt to change dietary patterns
must necessarily involve the central nervous system and may be
associated with mood changes.
That diet influences behavior is an ancient human belief. Primitive
people attributed friendly and unfriendly feelings to plants and
animals and expected these feelings to be transferred to anyone who ate
such foods. In religious teachings, the behavior of mankind was said to
change instantly when Eve ate the apple. Solomon, suffering the...
Many women experience breast tenderness and pain as part of PMS.
These episodes are known officially as cyclic mastalgia, cyclic
mastitis, or sometimes fibrocystic breast disease. Your symptoms may
range from an uncomfortable feeling of fullness in your breasts to a
pain that is severe enough to disrupt your life. At its worst, cyclic
mastalgia can interfere with your sleep, your sexual relationships, and
your ability to carry out your daily activities.
Prolactin is the hormone that stimulates milk production and the
other breast changes necessary to prepare for breastfeeding. Excessive
production of prolactin (a condition known as hyperprolactinemia) can
cause breast swelling and tenderness, as well as other PMS...
A disease process that is characterised by paradoxical
narrowing of the bronchi (lung passageways) making breathing difficult.
Symptoms include wheezing, difficulty breathing (particularly exhaling
air) and tightness in the chest. Factors which can exacerbate asthma
include rapid changes in temperature or humidity, allergies, upper
respiratory infections, exercise, stress or smoke (cigarette).
Asthma cannot be cured. The possibility of future attacks can,
however, be minimized by drugs and other preventives, but if a person
is disposed to asthma, there is always a chance that an attack will
occur. In the high-risk patient, home monitoring of lung function may
allow an increase in asthma medication before a patient has symptoms.
Treatment includes bronchodilators...
Burn is an area of tissue damage, caused by heat (including
friction and electricity), by cold, by a caustic chemical, or by
radiation. Burns are classified according to the depth of the tissue
Each year in the United States, more than 2 million burn injuries
demand medical attention. Ten thousand people die every year of
burn-related infections. Tragically, many burn
victims are children. The good news is that, in recent years, survival
statistics for serious burns have improved dramatically. Twenty years
ago, for instance, burns covering half the body were routinely fatal.
Today, patients with burns encompassing 90 percent of their body
surface can survive, albeit sometimes with permanent impairments.
An infection with a fungus of the genus Candida.
It is usually a superficial infection of the moist cutaneous areas
of the body and is generally caused by Candida albicans, it most
commonly involves the skin (dermatocandidiasis), oral mucous membranes
(oral candidiasis), respiratory tract (bronchocandidiasis) and vagina
(vaginal candidiasis or thrush). Rarely there is a systemic infection
Oral candidiasis: describes a fungal (yeast) infection of the
oral cavity due to Candida. It is common in infants, diabetics or those
on chemotherapy and is well recognised in patients with HIV infection
and AIDS. Thrush is the common name for a yeast infection in the mouth.
Thrush is not contagious. This...
Capillary is the smallest type of blood vessel in the vascular
system. Capillaries connect the smallest arteries with the smallest
veins; most are so narrow that only one blood cell can pass along them
at a time. The capillary wall is the conduit for material passing from
an artery to a vein. The function of capillaries is to carry
oxygen-rich blood to the tissues, to pass food substances to tissue
cells, and to carry away waste products, such as carbon dioxide.
Capillaritis is the name given to a harmless skin condition in which
there are reddish-brown patches caused by leaky capillaries. It is also
known as pigmented purpura.
When abnormal cells are found on the cervix this condition is called
dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia is considered to be a precancerous
condition. Mild dysplasia can disappear on its own or it can be the
first step towards cervical cancer. Having annual Pap smear tests
is crucial for detecting and monitoring cervical dysplasia. Dysplasia
can occur at any age from puberty onward. It's usually found in women
between the ages of 25 and 35.
When a Pap smear test reveals cervical dysplasia, another Pap smear
is usually ordered to confirm the first test result. If abnormal cells
are still present, a procedure called a colposcopy may be performed.
The colposcope magnifies...
The Pap test is a screening test for malignant and premalignant
changes of the cervix. A positive result indicates that there may be a
problem and that further diagnostic procedures must be done. The Pap
test is not a diagnostic test. It cannot be used to exclude a cancer of
the cervix for a person who has symptoms that could be due to a
cervical cancer. Women who have never had a smear often worry about
this. For most women the test is painless and for some slightly
uncomfortable. It only takes a few minutes to perform.
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, or womb....
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is something of a medical
mystery. The medical community is divided over whether or not MCS
Some physicians acknowledge MCS as a medical disorder that is
triggered by exposures to chemicals in the environment, often beginning
with a short term, severe chemical exposure (like a chemical spill) or
with a longer term, small exposures (like a poorly ventilated office
building). After the initial exposure, low levels of everyday chemicals
such as those found in cosmetics, soaps, and newspaper inks can trigger
physical reactions in MCS patients. These patients report a range of
symptoms that often include headaches, rashes, asthma, depression,
muscle and joint aches, fatigue,...
Congestive heart failure (or heart failure) is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body's other organs. The word failure implies the heart has stopped and is no longer working when, in fact, it really means the heart is not working as efficiently as it can. Congestive heart failure is an underlying symptom of another disease process.
Congestive heart failure is not a disease in itself. It is a syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump an adequate supply of blood to meet the oxygen requirements of the body's tissues...
Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gall bladder. Acute
cholecystitis is usually associated with blockage of the cystic duct by
a stone. Mechanical obstruction, chemical inflammation, and bacterial
infection are believed to play a role. A vast majority of patients are
believed to become symptomatic due to bacterial infection.
Three factors contribute to the onset of inflammation - stasis of
bile in the gall bladder, release of lysolecithin, and super-infection
Much more common in women, particularly in middle aged, obese women who have had several children.
There is usually severe, sudden, or gradual pain in the right upper
abdomen, with nausea, chills, vomiting, high fever, and sometimes
Constipation is passage of small amounts of hard, dry bowel
movements, usually fewer than three times a week. People who are
constipated may find it difficult and painful to have a bowel movement.
Other symptoms of constipation include feeling bloated, uncomfortable,
Many people think they are constipated when, in fact, their bowel
movements are regular. For example, some people believe they are
constipated, or irregular, if they do not have a bowel movement every
day. However, there is no right number of daily or weekly bowel
movements. Normal may be three times a day or three times a week
depending on the person. In addition, some people naturally...
Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the anus to the mouth. It causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), vomiting, and weight loss. Crohn's disease recipes can be found in a majority of recipe publications, including the internet.
Crohn's disease can be a difficult condition to deal with, especially when it comes to the appropriate diet that is ideal for the patient. Diet and nutrition play a crucial role in the management of Crohn's disease. To stay healthy, people with this condition need an ample and adequate intake of...
Bladder infection occurs in the organ of the body that gathers,
holds, and eventually releases urine. There are many types, causes, and
symptoms of bladder infections. One of the more common bladder
disorders is cystitis, a bladder infection that is painful, may be
recurrent, and causes urine to turn cloudy. Bladder infections may also
cause difficulty in urination, frequent urination, and bloody
urination. Treatment for bladder infections varies, but generally
includes increased liquid intake and antibiotics.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), one of the chronic pelvic pain
disorders, is a condition resulting in recurring discomfort or pain in
the bladder and the surrounding pelvic region. The symptoms of IC vary
from case to...
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that
affects the skin. The word dermatitis means inflammation of the skin.
Atopic refers to a group of diseases that are hereditary (that is, run
in families) and often occur together, including asthma, allergies such
as hay fever, and atopic dermatitis.
In atopic dermatitis, the skin becomes extremely itchy and inflamed,
causing redness, swelling, cracking, weeping, crusting, and scaling.
Atopic dermatitis most often affects infants and young children, but it
can continue into adulthood or first show up later in life. In most
cases, there are periods of time when the disease is worse, called
exacerbations or flares, followed by
periods when the skin...
Diabetes mellitus (commonly called diabetes) is a condition found in
16 million Americans. About half of these people do not know they have
diabetes and are not under care for the disorder. Diabetes is not a
single disease but rather a syndrome of hyperglycaemia and glycosuria,
accompanied by varying degrees of ketosis and acidosis, with or without
weight loss. It has several causes and mechanisms of inheritance.
As diabetes is a condition characterized by metabolic abnormalities
(the most evident is hyperglycaemia, an elevated concentration of
glucose in the blood), the treatment of it must also prevent or reduce
the risk and severity of other long term complications involving
Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease which causes
inflammation of various parts of the body, especially the skin, joints,
blood and kidneys. The body's immune system normally makes proteins
called antibodies to protect the body against viruses, bacteria and
other foreign materials. These foreign materials are called antigens.
In an autoimmune disorder such as lupus, the immune system loses its
ability to tell the difference between foreign substances (antigens)
and its own cells and tissues. The immune system then makes antibodies
directed against "self." These antibodies, called "auto-antibodies,"
react with the "self" antigens to form immune complexes. The immune
complexes build up in the tissue and can cause inflammation, injury...
The nervous system and the brain form an intricate system of electrical signals responsible for muscle, speech, thought, emotion, and senses coordination. A neurological disease, or a disease of the nervous system, is one that affects the nervous system of the body. Several neurological diseases that have a direct effect on the nervous system have a characteristic genetic component - some may be as a result of mutation in a singular cell, while others can have a more intricate mode of inheritance.
Being such an important part of the human body, each disease of the nervous system isn't a rare...
An infection of the lips or mouth which results in a blistery sore
that is caused by Herpes simplex type 1. Most Americans think of it as
a cold sore that comes and goes. But the Herpes Virus is a highly
contagious microbe that never really leaves.
Eight out of every 10 American adults are infected with the herpes
simplex virus, or HSV. The virus is either dormant within a variety of
tissues or is activated and highly contagious. As a contagious virus,
HSV is either the direct cause or a cofactor associated with a number
of different diseases and disorders. Its best-known manifestation: the
common cold sore. The...
Sometimes called fibrositis, a chronic disorder that causes
pain and stiffness throughout the tissues that support and move the
bones and joints. Pain and localized tender points occur in the
muscles, particularly those that support the neck, spine, shoulders,
and hips. The disorder includes widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep
According to the American College of Rheumatology, fibromyalgia
affects 3 to 6 million Americans. It primarily occurs in women of
childbearing age, but children, the elderly, and men can also be
Although the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, researchers have
several theories about causes or triggers of the disorder. Some
scientists believe that the syndrome may be caused by an injury...
Everyone has gas and eliminates it by burping or passing it
through the rectum. However, many people think they have too much gas
when they really have normal amounts. Most people produce about 1 to 3
pints a day and pass gas about 14 times a day.
The most common symptoms of gas are belching, flatulence, abdominal
bloating, and abdominal pain. However, not everyone experiences these
symptoms. The determining factors probably are how much gas the body
produces, how many fatty acids the body absorbs, and a person's
sensitivity to gas in the large intestine. Chronic symptoms caused by
too much gas or by a serious disease are rare.
Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens into
pieces of stone-like material. The liquid, called bile, is used to help
the body digest fats. Bile is made in the liver, then stored in the
gallbladder until the body needs to digest fat. At that time, the
gallbladder contracts and pushes the bile into a tube-called a
duct-that carries it to the small intestine, where it helps with
Bile contains water, cholesterol,
fats, bile salts, and bilirubin. Bile salts break up fat, and bilirubin
gives bile and stool a brownish color. If the liquid bile contains too
much cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin, it can harden into stones.
Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining or mucosa. The inflammation may be caused by viral infection, alcohol, smoking, certain drugs, poisoned food, or stress. There are many forms of gastritis. Erosive gastritis can lead to significant bleeding of the stomach and ulcerations. Gastritis may be acute or chronic.
It can occur with any major physical stress such as severe illness, surgery or burns, and therefore is referred to as stress-induced gastritis. Medications that are well-known stomach irritants can contribute to gastritis. These include aspirin, nonsteroidal agents such as ibuprofen and pancreatic enzymes. Excessive alcohol ingestion can also cause gastritis...
Mutation, deletion, aberrations, unusual extension of genes causes genetic diseases. As medical scientists still do not know of ways to stop genetic disorders prior to birth, many children are born with genetic disorders.
Angelman Syndrome is one of rare genetic diseases. In 1965 Dr. Angelman first described the details of this neuro-genetic disorder, in which growth delaying, difficulty in speaking, sleeping disorders and mood swings are common symptoms.
Canavan disease genetically destructs the brain cells. It belongs to the genetic disease category called leukodystrophies. Its main characteristic is the degeneration of myelin, which is the protecting layer of nerve fibers of...
Faulty genes or chromosomes are subjected to genetic disorder. There are a number of genetic disorders in human beings. Some diseases are very common, whereas few are rare. The causes of these diseases may be different. The scientists are pursuing for the solution with a single-minded devotion. Fortunately, much research has been done, yet thorough research is needful. Genetic Diseases are known as hereditary diseases that are caused by abnormalities in genes. Gene abnormal extension, deletion of genes, chromosomal aberrations, and mutation of genes are the mains causes of genetic disorders. In the human being, dominant genetic traits are expressive...
Over 40 million Americans experience chronic headaches. For at least
half of these people, the problem is severe and sometimes disabling. It
can also be costly: headache sufferers make over 8 million visits a
year to doctor's offices. Migraine victims alone lose over 65 million
workdays because of headache pain.
Several areas of the head can hurt, including a network of nerves
which extends over the scalp and certain nerves in the face, mouth, and
throat. Also sensitive to pain, because they contain delicate nerve
fibers, are the muscles of the head and blood vessels found along the
surface and at the base of the brain.
The bones of the...
Triglycerides are fats that come from the diet or are manufactured by the body. High levels of triglycerides contribute to atherosclerosis.
Very high levels of triglycerides can cause pancreatitis (inflammation
of the pancreas). A new study shows that the more triglycerides you
have in your blood, the greater your risk of having a heart attack. The
major triglyceride-containing lipoproteins are called
very-low-density-lipoproteins (VLDL), in contrast to the major cholesterol -containing
lipoprotein LDL. In contrast, HDL (good) cholesterol is believed to
carry cholesterol and other lipids from the arteries back to the liver.
High triglycerides are associated with a lot of other risk factors (low HDL, small dense LDL,...
Hypochlorhydria is a poor stomach output of hydrochloric acid.
Hypochlorhydria is fairly common; according to some surveys, a low
level of stomach acid occurs in up to 47% of the general population,
the highest incidence being found in older people.
Much has been said in the media about too much acid, hyperacidity,
and millions of dollars are erroneously spent on antacids, when the
opposite problem is often the case - too little acid.
On the other hand, some people may experience no gastrointestinal
symptoms whatsoever. When there are no symptoms, individuals can wind
up years later with serious consequences which are never related to the
Without acid, the body...
Glucose, a form of sugar, is the body's main fuel. Hypoglycemia, or
low blood sugar, occurs when blood levels of glucose drop too low to
fuel the body's activity.
Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) are the body's main dietary
sources of glucose. During digestion, the glucose is absorbed into the
blood stream (hence the term "blood sugar"), which carries it to every
cell in the body. Unused glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen.
Hypoglycemia can occur as a complication of diabetes, as a condition in itself, or in association with other disorders.
The amount of glucose in the blood is controlled mainly by the
hormones insulin and glucagon....
Indigestion, also known as upset stomach or dyspepsia, is a painful or burning feeling
in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by nausea, abdominal bloating, belching, and
Indigestion might be caused by a disease or an ulcer in the digestive tract, but for
most people, it results from eating too much, eating too quickly, eating high-fat foods,
or eating during stressful situations. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, using
medications that irritate the stomach lining, being tired, and having ongoing stress can
also cause indigestion or make it worse.
Bloating can result from excessive gas in the digestive system, failure of the...
People who suffer from chronic kidney disease usually don't experience kidney failure all at one time. This is promising news for those with this condition because if CKD is detected early, drug therapies and lifestyle modifications can help slow down the generative process and will keep you feeling better for a longer duration.
A person who is in kidney disease stage 3 will have a moderate decline in there GFR of about 30-60 mil/min. As the kidneys decrease in their function to expel waste products from the body, these toxins can build up in the blood creating...
The symptoms in kidney disease stages are quite faint that it might usually take a couple of years to realize that a person has kidney disease. At the end of the day, you should have an idea whether you are at risk through studying the stages through which the malady is depicted. Always know so many kidney symptoms could be caused by other kinds of disease other than kidney associated malady, while the only superb way to confirm this being a regular checkup through your doctor.
The first stage in kidney diseases is only a mild damage. If you are...
Some people may not think that they have kidney diseases until they have undergone medical checkups. They don't have the slightest reasons to think that they have it, as the relevant symptoms are not as severe to restrict their day-today activities. Within this backdrop, it is highly important to understand symptoms of the disease to get appropriate treatment before the disease converts to a life-threatening condition such as kidney failure.
The nephrons of the kidneys may get damaged due to various reasons and most of these reasons are still unknown. From the known causes, high blood pressure and diabetics are prominent....
Kidneys are one of the major and vital organs in the human body and they helps in excreting the waste product from the body. Kidney function is very important in a human body. Some of the major kidney related problems are described below.
1. Acute renal failure - this actually makes the kidney stop working properly, some of the major function like urination, purification and other kidney related functions. Kidney suddenly stops its normal activities. The major reason for this unusual activity of kidney is because of certain problems. Acute infection in the kidney is the major cause of acute renal...
Most states in the United States have specific laws and guidelines that spell out how communicable diseases should be kept in check and how outbreaks should be curbed. Towards this end, they keep a list of communicable diseases that is available even for the general public. The list communicable diseases is primarily used by the health facilities, healthcare providers and the relevant monitory authorities to ensure that such diseases are kept under control at all times.
Basically a diseases is termed communicable (CD) if it is infectious and can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person via...
Rare diseases are diseases which do not attract lot of public attention, funding, or research, perhaps because they are extremely very rare and are poorly publicized. Some of the rare diseases include: -
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Angina Pectoris, Variant
Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia
Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies
Carcinoma 256, Walker
De Lange Syndrome
Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder
Duane Retraction Syndrome
Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome
Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
It is necessary to manage, and even completely cure Lyme disease by strict observation of a Lyme disease diet. Natural alternatives like dieting, herbs, vitamins, minerals and simple changes in lifestyle have been proved to be effective in management and even cure of this disease.
Due to the fact that Lyme disease can have complications in terms of timely detection and treatment, it is useful to treat the disease as soon as possible. This annoying and frustrating disease can luckily be effectively managed by simply living a healthy lifestyle, and using basic remedies.
For healing Lyme disease, diet is of paramount importance....
The first symptom of Lyme disease is the rash that spreads out from the site of the tick bite. If the bite is ignored and is not treated the bacteria spreads to other areas of the body.
Since the Lyme disease rash is the first stage of the disease, is can develop between 2 to 30 days after being bitten by an infected tick. The Lyme disease rash is also known as erythema migrans or bulls-eye rash. The rash starts off as a single circular red mark and it spreads outwards slowly over a period of days. The circle...
Although the precise contribution of nutrition to maternal and
infant health cannot yet be distinguished from genetic, environmental,
or behavioural factors that affect risk, an inadequate diet during
pregnancy increases the probability of a low birth weight (LBW) infant,
who, in turn, has an increased risk of mortality. Well-nourished
mothers who gain appropriate amounts of weight during pregnancy
generally give birth to heavier, healthier babies.
The most important factor contributing to the infant mortality rate
is a low birth weight - less than 2500 g. Infant deaths and illnesses
increase sharply as birth weight declines. LBW infants are at increased
risk for developmental handicaps, birth defects, respiratory and other
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is also known as click-murmur syndrome (it causes a
characteristic heart murmur that may be heard through a stethoscope), Barlow's syndrome,
dysautonomia, balloon mitral valve and floppy valve syndrome. The mitral valve is the
heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle . It has two flaps, or cusps. The
opening in the valve may be narrower than normal (mitral stenosis) or wider than normal
Researchers from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Framingham
Heart Study report that MVP is substantially less common and less serious than previously
believed. In a study...
The Nervous System is the most important system in the human body. If the nervous system doesn't work properly then the entire body fails. Unfortunately, there are many diseases that affect the neurologic system. Here're a brief list and descriptions of some of the more common neurologic disorders that affect the majority of people in our modern day world.
Cerebral Palsy - this disease is the most common cause of children becoming crippled. Cerebral palsy is defined as a group of neuromuscular disorders the will result in CNS damage. One of the most common signs and symptoms for cerebral palsy...
The brain and nervous system require the full complement of
essential nutrients and energy to develop and maintain their neurons
and supporting cells. A deficiency of any one of these essential
nutrients may impair the structure or functionality of the neurologic
Stroke is the most common life-threatening neurologic disease. Other
neurologic conditions are, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and Alzheimer's
The brain metabolizes 100 g to 150 g of glucose per day. During starvation, it adapts and uses ketones, derived from the breakdown of body fat stores, for energy and thus spares blood glucose and conserves body protein.
Severe deficiencies of vitamins, especially the B-complex group,
impair nervous system function....
Nyctalopia - Night blindness or difficulty in seeing at night. Symptom of vitamin A deficiency.
Night blindness is an eye disorder in which vision is abnormally impaired in dim light
or at night. It is caused by a deficiency of visual purple (rhodopsin) in the
light-sensitive rod cells of the retina at the back of the eye. Night blindness most
commonly occurs as a result of retinitis pigmentosa, a degenerative condition of the
retina. Visual purple may also decrease if there is a dietary deficiency of vitamin A -
its principal component. Exposure to bright lights may cause the supply of...
The ear consists of three major parts: the outer ear, the middle ear
and the inner ear. The outer ear includes the pinna - the visible part
of the ear - and the ear canal. The outer ear extends to the tympanic
membrane or eardrum, which separates the outer ear from the middle ear.
The middle ear is an air-filled space that is located behind the
eardrum. The middle ear contains three tiny bones, the malleus, incus
and stapes, which transmit sound from the eardrum to the inner ear. The
inner ear contains the hearing and balance organs. The cochlea contains
the hearing organ which converts sound into...
Reportable diseases are known as Notifiable diseases in Medical terms. There are many diseases which are highly infectious in nature. These diseases spread rapidly from person to person, and can affect a large amount of population within a short period of time.
The resulting phenomenon is called as an Epidemic, when a large amount of population is affected, but the population is limited only to a specific area, or part of a specific country, or within a specific country
When the disease spreads very rapidly, taking down population from one country to another, it is called as a Pandemic. The disease usually...
You're coughing and sneezing and tired and achy. You think that you might be getting a
cold. Later, when the medicines you've been taking to relieve the symptoms of the common cold
are not working and you?ve now got a terrible headache, you finally
drag yourself to the doctor. After listening to your history of
symptoms, examining your face and forehead, and perhaps doing a sinus
X-ray, the doctor says you have sinusitis.
Sinusitis simply means inflammation of the sinuses, but this gives little indication of
the misery and pain this condition can cause. Chronic sinusitis, sinusitis that persists
for at least 3 weeks, affects...
Frequent and recurrent sore throats are common, especially in children between the ages
of 5 and 10. There is no evidence that removing the tonsils decreases this frequency;
therefore, tonsillectomy surgery is performed less commonly than in the past.
Sore throats can be caused by either viruses or bacteria. The majority of sore throats
are caused by viruses; therefore, treating all sore throats with antibiotics (which can't
cure viruses and can be unnecessarily expensive) would needlessly expose people to the
risks of adverse reaction to the drugs.
The group A streptococcus bacterium is responsible for most cases of streptococcal
Some of the...
Although men are often not as expressive about the impact of
infertility as women, husbands contribute just as much to the causes of
infertility as do their wives. It can't be assumed, if a wife doesn't
get pregnant, that it's her problem and that her husband's reproductive
system is normal. The male side of the fertility issue must also be
examined, from the beginning of sperm production through the release of
sperm into the ejaculate.
Poor motility means the sperm have a difficult time swimming toward their goal - the
Sperm must travel within the female reproductive tract to reach the site of
fertilization. Sperm motility is...
Diseases spread in a myriad of ways from one person to another, from animals to humans, from a part of the body to other part in the same person etc.
The infections originating from the patient or self infection are called as Autogenous infection. This usually occurs from the skin, the nasopharynx, the bowels etc.
The infection from outside sources are called as exogenous infections and they are transmitted from another person who may be suffering from the same disease or from a carrier who is just carrying the micro organisms in his body, but is not actually suffering from it.
There is no likelihood of both kidneys failing at once when a case of chronic kidney is reported. There is always a slow progression of the disease over a period of years. This means that doctors have an opportunity to do something in order to prevent the chronic kidney disease situation from getting worse in case there is early diagnosis.
The National Kidney Foundation has come up with subdivisions that describe five stages through which patients of kidney disease go through. This demarcation of stages is meant to enable caregivers to do their work more efficiently in order for patients...
Tay-Sachs disease occurs when the body lacks hexosaminidase A, a protein that helps break down a chemical found in nerve tissue called gangliosides. It is basically a recessive genetic disorder in children that causes destruction in the central nervous system. The condition is fatal. Since it's genetic, there is a possibility that the parent passes it on to the child and the child becomes the carrier. Every year at least 16 - 20 cases are detected with Tay-sachs disease.
There are three stages of Tay-Sachs, infantile, juvenile, and adult forms. Most have the infantile form. Here, the nerve damage usually begins...
Children are a gift of God. They are the innocent creatures that are pure from their heart to soul. But when a deadly disease takes over the joyful life of a child, it is much of a nightmare to his/her parents. Although there are not many children diseases that could be termed as lethal, but there is one, which is known as the fifth disease. The virus causing this disease is named human parvo virus b19. This is a deadly virus that is responsible for spreading many deadly diseases among children and the fifth disease being one of the most...
Varicose veins are abnormally swollen or enlarged blood vessels caused by a weakening
in the vein's wall, which often lead to pain and swelling in the leg. Varicose veins occur
from the backward flow of blood in the legs caused by damaged or diseased valves in the
veins. In the past, when the largest superficial veins were
involved, the only alternative was surgery to strip the defective vein, a procedure that
involves making an incision in the skin and either tying off or removing the blood
Varicose and smaller spider veins affect an estimated 80 million adults in the U.S. For...
A virus is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate when inside another organism's cells. Viruses will infect any type of organisms, animals, plants, human beings all included. Some of the common diseases caused by viruses include influenza, cold sores, chicken pox, and the common cold, while more serious and life threatening cases include the more prevalent AIDS, ebola, avian flu, SARS, swine flu to name but a few. The ability of a virus to cause disease is depicted in terms of its virulence.
There are some diseases however which are still under research to determine whether they are caused...
A wound is a break in the tissues of the body. Some injuries, like cuts and scrapes,
are called open wounds; others, like deep bruises, are called closed wounds. They are
usually caused by external forces such as motor vehicle accidents, falls, and the
mishandling of sharp objects, tools, machinery and weapons.
All wounds need first aid (and medical attention if the wound is serious) in order to
ensure proper healing and to avoid infection.
For the last several years, evidence has suggested that chronic wounds may be growth
factor deficient or represent a microenvironment hostile to the repair process. ...