Diseases and Other Conditions
Anemia occurs when the concentration of the pigment
hemoglobin in red blood cells falls below normal. Hemoglobin is
essential for delivering oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues.
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. Although iron
deficiency is generally the most common cause of anemia, there are
other nutritional, genetic, and environmental causes as well.
Iron was one of the first substances identified as essential in the
human diet. The physiologic function of iron in hemoglobin and its
role in anemia was determined over a two hundred year period from the
By World Health Organization criteria, anemia is considered to
exist when the non-pregnant adult female...
Capillary is the smallest type of blood vessel in the vascular
system. Capillaries connect the smallest arteries with the smallest
veins; most are so narrow that only one blood cell can pass along them
at a time. The capillary wall is the conduit for material passing from
an artery to a vein. The function of capillaries is to carry
oxygen-rich blood to the tissues, to pass food substances to tissue
cells, and to carry away waste products, such as carbon dioxide.
Capillaritis is the name given to a harmless skin condition in which
there are reddish-brown patches caused by leaky capillaries. It is also
known as pigmented purpura.
The Pap test is a screening test for malignant and premalignant
changes of the cervix. A positive result indicates that there may be a
problem and that further diagnostic procedures must be done. The Pap
test is not a diagnostic test. It cannot be used to exclude a cancer of
the cervix for a person who has symptoms that could be due to a
cervical cancer. Women who have never had a smear often worry about
this. For most women the test is painless and for some slightly
uncomfortable. It only takes a few minutes to perform.
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, or womb....
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is something of a medical
mystery. The medical community is divided over whether or not MCS
Some physicians acknowledge MCS as a medical disorder that is
triggered by exposures to chemicals in the environment, often beginning
with a short term, severe chemical exposure (like a chemical spill) or
with a longer term, small exposures (like a poorly ventilated office
building). After the initial exposure, low levels of everyday chemicals
such as those found in cosmetics, soaps, and newspaper inks can trigger
physical reactions in MCS patients. These patients report a range of
symptoms that often include headaches, rashes, asthma, depression,
muscle and joint aches, fatigue,...
Sometimes called fibrositis, a chronic disorder that causes
pain and stiffness throughout the tissues that support and move the
bones and joints. Pain and localized tender points occur in the
muscles, particularly those that support the neck, spine, shoulders,
and hips. The disorder includes widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep
According to the American College of Rheumatology, fibromyalgia
affects 3 to 6 million Americans. It primarily occurs in women of
childbearing age, but children, the elderly, and men can also be
Although the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, researchers have
several theories about causes or triggers of the disorder. Some
scientists believe that the syndrome may be caused by an injury...
Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens into
pieces of stone-like material. The liquid, called bile, is used to help
the body digest fats. Bile is made in the liver, then stored in the
gallbladder until the body needs to digest fat. At that time, the
gallbladder contracts and pushes the bile into a tube-called a
duct-that carries it to the small intestine, where it helps with
Bile contains water, cholesterol,
fats, bile salts, and bilirubin. Bile salts break up fat, and bilirubin
gives bile and stool a brownish color. If the liquid bile contains too
much cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin, it can harden into stones.
Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining or mucosa. The inflammation may be caused by viral infection, alcohol, smoking, certain drugs, poisoned food, or stress. There are many forms of gastritis. Erosive gastritis can lead to significant bleeding of the stomach and ulcerations. Gastritis may be acute or chronic.
It can occur with any major physical stress such as severe illness, surgery or burns, and therefore is referred to as stress-induced gastritis. Medications that are well-known stomach irritants can contribute to gastritis. These include aspirin, nonsteroidal agents such as ibuprofen and pancreatic enzymes. Excessive alcohol ingestion can also cause gastritis...
Faulty genes or chromosomes are subjected to genetic disorder. There are a number of genetic disorders in human beings. Some diseases are very common, whereas few are rare. The causes of these diseases may be different. The scientists are pursuing for the solution with a single-minded devotion. Fortunately, much research has been done, yet thorough research is needful. Genetic Diseases are known as hereditary diseases that are caused by abnormalities in genes. Gene abnormal extension, deletion of genes, chromosomal aberrations, and mutation of genes are the mains causes of genetic disorders. In the human being, dominant genetic traits are expressive...
Triglycerides are fats that come from the diet or are manufactured by the body. High levels of triglycerides contribute to atherosclerosis.
Very high levels of triglycerides can cause pancreatitis (inflammation
of the pancreas). A new study shows that the more triglycerides you
have in your blood, the greater your risk of having a heart attack. The
major triglyceride-containing lipoproteins are called
very-low-density-lipoproteins (VLDL), in contrast to the major cholesterol -containing
lipoprotein LDL. In contrast, HDL (good) cholesterol is believed to
carry cholesterol and other lipids from the arteries back to the liver.
High triglycerides are associated with a lot of other risk factors (low HDL, small dense LDL,...
People who suffer from chronic kidney disease usually don't experience kidney failure all at one time. This is promising news for those with this condition because if CKD is detected early, drug therapies and lifestyle modifications can help slow down the generative process and will keep you feeling better for a longer duration.
A person who is in kidney disease stage 3 will have a moderate decline in there GFR of about 30-60 mil/min. As the kidneys decrease in their function to expel waste products from the body, these toxins can build up in the blood creating...
Some people may not think that they have kidney diseases until they have undergone medical checkups. They don't have the slightest reasons to think that they have it, as the relevant symptoms are not as severe to restrict their day-today activities. Within this backdrop, it is highly important to understand symptoms of the disease to get appropriate treatment before the disease converts to a life-threatening condition such as kidney failure.
The nephrons of the kidneys may get damaged due to various reasons and most of these reasons are still unknown. From the known causes, high blood pressure and diabetics are prominent....
Most states in the United States have specific laws and guidelines that spell out how communicable diseases should be kept in check and how outbreaks should be curbed. Towards this end, they keep a list of communicable diseases that is available even for the general public. The list communicable diseases is primarily used by the health facilities, healthcare providers and the relevant monitory authorities to ensure that such diseases are kept under control at all times.
Basically a diseases is termed communicable (CD) if it is infectious and can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person via...
Rare diseases are diseases which do not attract lot of public attention, funding, or research, perhaps because they are extremely very rare and are poorly publicized. Some of the rare diseases include: -
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Angina Pectoris, Variant
Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia
Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies
Carcinoma 256, Walker
De Lange Syndrome
Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder
Duane Retraction Syndrome
Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome
Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is also known as click-murmur syndrome (it causes a
characteristic heart murmur that may be heard through a stethoscope), Barlow's syndrome,
dysautonomia, balloon mitral valve and floppy valve syndrome. The mitral valve is the
heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle . It has two flaps, or cusps. The
opening in the valve may be narrower than normal (mitral stenosis) or wider than normal
Researchers from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Framingham
Heart Study report that MVP is substantially less common and less serious than previously
believed. In a study...
The brain and nervous system require the full complement of
essential nutrients and energy to develop and maintain their neurons
and supporting cells. A deficiency of any one of these essential
nutrients may impair the structure or functionality of the neurologic
Stroke is the most common life-threatening neurologic disease. Other
neurologic conditions are, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and Alzheimer's
The brain metabolizes 100 g to 150 g of glucose per day. During starvation, it adapts and uses ketones, derived from the breakdown of body fat stores, for energy and thus spares blood glucose and conserves body protein.
Severe deficiencies of vitamins, especially the B-complex group,
impair nervous system function....
You're coughing and sneezing and tired and achy. You think that you might be getting a
cold. Later, when the medicines you've been taking to relieve the symptoms of the common cold
are not working and you?ve now got a terrible headache, you finally
drag yourself to the doctor. After listening to your history of
symptoms, examining your face and forehead, and perhaps doing a sinus
X-ray, the doctor says you have sinusitis.
Sinusitis simply means inflammation of the sinuses, but this gives little indication of
the misery and pain this condition can cause. Chronic sinusitis, sinusitis that persists
for at least 3 weeks, affects...
Frequent and recurrent sore throats are common, especially in children between the ages
of 5 and 10. There is no evidence that removing the tonsils decreases this frequency;
therefore, tonsillectomy surgery is performed less commonly than in the past.
Sore throats can be caused by either viruses or bacteria. The majority of sore throats
are caused by viruses; therefore, treating all sore throats with antibiotics (which can't
cure viruses and can be unnecessarily expensive) would needlessly expose people to the
risks of adverse reaction to the drugs.
The group A streptococcus bacterium is responsible for most cases of streptococcal
Some of the...