Amino acids are the molecular units that make up proteins. All
proteins are various compositions of twenty specific naturally
occurring amino acids.
Protein is required for the growth and development of all animals
including human beings. Body proteins serve many functions, they
include structural components of cells and tissues, enzyme catalysts of
biochemical reactions, hormone messengers, and components of the immune
Proteins are hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes to peptides and amino
acids which are absorbed and transported by the blood to various body
tissues. Tissue proteins are continually being broken down and
resynthesized, ingested amino acids being incorporated and those
already present being eliminated. Certain amino acids necessary for
growth and maintenance...
Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is an inactive yeast,
meaning the yeasts have been killed and have no leavening power. It is
the yeast remaining after beer making. It is used as a nutrient
supplement to increase the intake of B vitamins. Brewer's yeast comes
powdered (the most potent form), in flakes (best for health shakes),
and in tablets.
Brewer's yeast and torula yeast are frequently confused with
nutritional yeast. Nutritional yeast is a primary grown food crop,
which means it is cultivated specifically for use as a nutritional
supplement. This yeast is dried at higher temperatures than baking
yeast, rendering it inactive. Unlike the live yeasts used in
breadmaking and brewing,...
Calcium is a very important mineral that should always be included in our daily diet. It helps make bones strong and healthy. Although there are calcium supplements for people who have calcium deficiencies, there are also calcium supplements side effects. Therefore, before taking calcium supplements, it would be useful to know more about the calcium supplements side effects.
Calcium deficiency in the body may lead to certain health conditions or diseases. These may include a condition known as hypocalcemia, which is the lack of sufficient calcium in the body. The body needs calcium for healthy bones besides a strong heart, muscles...
Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is the largest B vitamin and was the
last one to be isolated in 1948 by Dr E. Lester Smith in the UK from
liver. It is a red crystalline substance. It had been known as early as
1926, that something in raw liver was a treatment for anaemia. There
are various forms of the cobalamin (so called due to the presence of
cobalt) molecule, some of these are; methyl-, cyano, adnosyl- and
hydroxocobalamin (B12b). There are also nitrit (B12c), sulphito and
aquacobalamins. The human body can normally convert from one to the
other. The human body typically contains 5000-10000 ?g of B12
distributed about equally...
Protein or protein-based molecules that speed up chemical
reactions occurring in living things. Enzymes act as catalysts for a
single reaction, converting a specific set of reactants (called
substrates) into specific products. Without enzymes life as we know it
would be impossible.
Enzymes are biological catalysts. Catalysts lower the activation
energy for reactions. The lower the activation energy for a reaction,
the faster the rate. Thus enzymes speed up reactions by lowering
Enzymes exist in the mouth (saliva), stomach (gastric juice), and
intestines (pancreatic juice, intestinal juice, and intestinal mucosa);
and change starches, proteins, and sugars into substances the body can
digest. Enzymes also cause clotting (thrombin); split, reduce, or...
Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is a member of the Omega-3 fatty
acid family. EPA is required for the production of a special group of
substances in the body called prostaglandins, which control blood
clotting and other arterial functions. EPA also provides a natural
approach to lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are
long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish and fish oils.
The intake of dietary EPA/DHA is enhanced by eating coldwater fish
regularly, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, or sardines that feed on
certain plankton, or by taking additional oil supplements.
Since studies on the health of Greenland Eskimos in the 1970s, these
Flavonoids were discovered by Nobel Prize-winning biochemist
Albert Szent-Gyorgi, who labeled them "vitamin P". He discovered that
they enhanced the function of vitamin C, improving absorption and
protecting it from oxidation. Flavonoids that have been shown to have
particularly beneficial properties include proanthocyanidins, green tea
polyphenols and soy isoflavones. Quercetin and its derivatives; the
citrus bioflavonoids, including quercitrin, rutin and hesperidin; have
also been fairly well studied.
They are responsible for the colors of many fruits and vegetables,
are found also in grains, nuts, leaves and flowers, and studies suggest
there value in the treatment of a number of disorders. They are
considered one of the most common biological constituents in...
Other Common Names: Ama, Annual Flax, Chih Ma, Common
Flax, Cultivated Flax, Hu Ma, Kahtan, Keten, Kettan, Kittan, Lin,
Linaza, Lino, Linseed, Linseed Flax, Linum usitatissimum
Range: Possibly native to Europe. Belgium; Britain; China;
Egypt; Germany; India; Iraq; Kurdistan; Mexico; Peru; Spain; Turkey;
Habitat: Prefers a light well-drained moderately fertile humus-rich soil in a sunny sheltered position. Prefers a cool moist climate.
Composition: The envelope or testa of the seed contains about
15 per cent of mucilage. The seeds themselves contain in the cotyledons
and endosperm from 30 to 40 per cent of a fixed oil, of a light yellow
colour, and about 25 per cent proteids, together...
Histidine is an essential amino acid during infancy, and its
synthetic pathways in older children and adults are poorly understood.
According to "Nelson's Textbook of Pediatrics" the clinical signs of a
lack of the enzyme which acts in the metabolism of histadine can
include impaired speech, growth retardation or mental retardation.
However, whether these findings are actually related to lack of
histidine is unclear since children who are defficient in histidine can
be completely normal.
The importance of the amino acid histidine lies in the fact that the
body uses it to manufacture histamine, and histamine is responsible for
a wide range of physiological processes. It is common knowledge that
Historically, hydrochloric acid (HCl) was prescribed for many
symptoms and clinical conditions and was listed as a therapeutic
intervention in various pharmacopoeia. However, beginning in the late
1920s and early 1930s, its common use by the medical establishment
began to decline. While the therapeutic efficacy of oral administration
of HCl is still equivocal, largely due to a scarcity of outcome-focused
clinical intervention studies, a substantial body of evidence indicates
the necessity of proper gastric pH for optimal health. HCl secretion is
required for protein digestion by activating pepsinogen to pepsin. It
also renders the stomach sterile against orally-ingested pathogens,
prevents bacterial or fungal overgrowth of the small intestine,
encourages the flow...
The main active component in the herbal extract of Garcinia
compound is Hydroxycitric acid (HCA). The earliest research, conducted
in the 1970s, into the antiobesity effects of HCA was conducted by
Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals. Studies have shown the ability of
HCA to inhibit the actions of citrate cleavage enzyme, suppress fatty
acid synthesis, increase hepatic glycogen synthesis, suppress food
intake, increase energy expenditure, curb appetite, reduce plasmatic
cholesterol levels, and inhibit fat synthesis from excess carbohydrate
The herb Garcinia
cambogia and its active ingredient, hydroxycitric acid, have been
promoted as an aid to weight loss. Hydroxycitric acid has a chemical
composition similar to citric acid (the primary acid in citrus fruits).
L-Isoleucine is a neutral, genetically coded amino acid. It is
essential in human nutrition. Isoleucine is found in especially high
amounts in meats, fish, cheese, most seeds and nuts, eggs, chickens and
lentils. In the human body Isoleucine is concentrated in the muscle
tissues. Isoleucine is necessary for hemoglobin formation and in
stabilizing and regulating blood sugar and energy levels. A deficiency
of isoleucine can produce symptoms similar to those of hypoglycemia.
It is one of several essential amino acids needed in the diet; human
beings cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites. Young adults need
about 20 mg of this amino acid per day per kg (or about 8...
Lactase is an enzyme that is in the lining of the gut. This enzyme degrades lactose,
which is in milk. If a person does not have enough lactase, the body cannot digest the
lactose in most milk products. Instead, the lactose is used by bacteria, gas is formed,
and the person experiences bloating, abdominal pain, and sometimes diarrhea. Other
indications of lactose intolerance could include heartburn, irritable bowel syndrome,
nonseasonal asthma and migraine.
Some causes of lactose intolerance are well known. For instance, certain digestive
diseases and injuries to the small intestine can reduce the amount of enzymes produced. In
Fats, such as the fats in milk, need to be digested by your
body. They are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol by an enzyme
called lipase. Gastric lipase, secreted by the stomach lining, has a pH
value for optimal activity around neutrality and would appear,
therefore, to be essentially inactive in the strongly acid environment
of the stomach. It is suggested that this enzyme is more important for
infant digestion since the gastric pH in infancy is much less acid than
later in life. Most lipid digestion in the adult occurs in the upper
loop of the small intestine and is accomplished by a lipase secreted...
A liquid nutritional supplement, as the name may suggest, is a dietary supplement that comes in liquid form. There are different applications of liquid nutritional supplements, just as there are several different types of the same. As a general rule of thumb, one doesn't need a nutritional supplement, whether in liquid form or whatever, if they are able to eat a well balanced diet perfectly and meet their nutritional supplementation. Supplements become necessary if one is not meeting their daily nutritional needs from their dietary plans, perhaps because of poor eating habits, the body's poor absorption rate or perhaps because...
Malic acid is a natural constituent of many fruits and
vegetables that are preserved by fermentation. This acid may be broken
down during fermentation by certain bacteria into lactic acid and
carbon dioxide. This reaction is desired to reduce the acidity in
certain types of wines, and is undesired in the fermentation of
cucumbers because of gaseous spoilage from carbon dioxide accumulation
inside the fruit.
Many traditional fresh and fermented ready-to-eat foods are
dependent on their acidity as the primary means for controlling the
presence of disease- causing bacteria. In such foods, how quickly
pathogenic microorganisms are inactivated is dependent on both the
level of acidity (pH) and the identity and...
Octacosanol is a solid white alcohol that is extracted from wheat germ oil. This
substance is advertised as being the principle ingredient in wheat germ oil that
supposedly promotes endurance, strength, and vigor.
Wheat germ oil is very high in vitamin E and is often used as a source of vitamin E for
internal use or for external application to burns, sores, and other skin problems. The
antioxidant properties of vitamin E make wheat germ oil more stable to oxidation or
rancidity than many other oils.
Octacosanol is another active ingredient of wheat germ oil. Many users and
manufacturers of octacosanol capsules...
The pancreas is a large gland that lies in the upper abdomen, behind the lower part of
the stomach. It serves two major functions. One is to produce the hormones insulin and
glucagon, which help regulate metabolism. The other is to produce pancreatic juice, a
secretion delivered into the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum), where it aids
Pancreatin is a mixture of the fat dissolving enzyme, lipase, the protein enzymes such
as protease, and those that break down carbohydrates like amylase. The enzymes in
pancreatin may come from pork or beef. If you are vegetarian or have allergies...
Papain is a protein-cleaving enzyme derived from papaya and certain other plants.
Enzymes are complex molecules produced in living organisms to catalyze (speed up) chemical
reactions within the cell. A number of digestive enzyme supplements are available. The
simple ones are extracted from tropical fruits: bromelain from pineapple and papain from
papayas. Papain has a mild, soothing effect on the stomach and aids in protein digestion.
It is most often used as a meat tenderizer.
Though the exact area of origin is unknown, the papaya is believed native to tropical
America, perhaps in southern Mexico and neighboring Central America. It is...
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a purified extract from lecithin and is one of the
components of bile (it is required for normal transport of bile acids). Emulsifies and
breaks down fat deposits in the body, which make it helpful in the prevention of
gallstones, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and liver problems. Research has shown that
Phosphatidylcholine is beneficial in depression, memory loss and neurological disorders.
It is 3 times more potent than Lecithin
Phosphatidylcholine is one of the most important support nutrients
for the liver. PC is a phospholipid, a large biological molecule that
is a universal building block for cell membranes. A cell's membranes
Other Common Names: Grape seed extract, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), Procyanidolic Oligomers (PCOs), Pycnogenol, Procyanidins
During the winter of 1534, the French explorer Jacques Cartier and his crew avoided
scurvy by using Anneda, an Indian medicine probably containing ascorbic acid and
procyanidins. Four centuries later, Szent-Gyorgyi was misguided in proposing citrin [lemon
flavonoid compound] as a second antiscorbutic factor, for flavonoids are devoid of true
vitamin-like behavior. On the other hand, pycnogenols, widely found in old empirical
antiscorbutic remedies, seem more appropriate in this respect, since they are active per
os, bioavailable, linked to various living tissues, and concerned with essential metabolic...
Progestins are hormones. They are used by both men and women for different purposes.
Progesterone is a hormone produced mainly by the ovaries and the placenta in female
animals during the period when they are able to bear young. This hormone can also be
produced by the adrenal glands in both the females and males by the testes in males. It
plays an important role in the normal menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. When the egg
leaves its follicle in the ovary, the follicle is transformed into the corpus luteum. The
corpus luteum manufactures progesterone, apparently from cholesterol. Progesterone then
Proline contains no primary but a secondary amino group and is
therefore actually an alpha-imino acid, but it is nevertheless referred
to as an amino acid. It is the one exception to the general structure
of amino acids.
This is a nonessential amino acid that is synthesized by the body
from the amino acids glutamine or ornithine and is involved in the
body's production of glutamic acid. In foods, it is found readily in
dairy products and eggs, with some found in meats or wheat germ.
This amino acid is used for skin problems e.g., acne or ulcers etc.,
to help strengthen the skin structure, and retain a smooth...
Pyruvate (also known as pyruvic acid) occurs naturally in the body and is an end
product of the metabolism of sugar or starch. It is formed from the sugar glucose (blood
sugar) during the process known as glycolysis. Glycolysis is one of the energy generating
pathways that our bodies use every second of everyday to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
- our "ultimate" energy molecule. The molecule ATP provides us with all the energy we need
to do everything from exercising and washing the car, to reading these very words.
Basically, when you make energy in glycolysis, you start with the sugar...
This legendary product from the beehive is produced solely for feeding the queen bee.
Without it, the queen would be just another bee. In fact, when the eggs hatch, those who
are continually fed royal jelly will become queens. Those not fed royal jelly just become
worker bees. She is fed royal jelly her entire life, grows 40 - 60%
larger and lives about 4 to 6 years, while the worker lives about 6 weeks! Now add to the
fact that the queen lays 1-1/2 times her own body weight in eggs a day (about 1,500) and
you begin to appreciate...
The discovery of sulfur predates recorded history, and the
element has been used since ancient times. The early medical books of
Dioscorides and Pliny mention Sulfur, and fumes from burning sulfur
were used in religious ceremonies and for fumigation. Alchemists
recognized sulfur as a mineral substance that can be melted and burned.
Sulfur is used to treat many kinds of skin disorders. Sulfur cream,
lotion, ointment, and bar soap are used to treat acne. Sulfur ointment
is used to treat seborrheic dermatitis and scabies. Sulfur may also be
used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Alcohol and sulfur combination is used in the treatment of acne and
Super food supplements are very important. They boost the nutrition of the respective foods. They add value to the food meaning that you eat highly nutritious supplements because of adding a little bit of the supplements. However, people spread some negatives about these super food supplements that you must ignore if you want to be using the supplements for your own good.
Never accept that a super food supplement is expensive. There is nothing like being expensive. Supplements should always be considered as important and therefore, you should not mind about the cost. Even when you purchase the supplements, you must...
Other Common Names: Curcumin, Curcuma, Curcuma longa
Range: Southern Asia. Cultivated in China, Bengal and Java.
The plant is a large-leaved herb, closely related to ginger. It is
cultivated in tropical countries for the thick, rounded, underground
stems or rhizomes, which constitute the spice, turmeric. Turmeric
contains an oil, which consists in part of curcumin, which on oxidation
is changed into vanillin, the active principle in vanilla. Curcumin is
the yellow pigment of turmeric. Curcumin is the ingredient which gives
curry its yellow color.
Turmeric is the key spice in curry. Curcumin has been used in both the Indian (Ayurvedic)
and Chinese Medicine systems for thousands of years. Curcumin studies
There is uniqueness to every type of supplement available in markets today. This is why you should always go for your choice so that you can enjoy using them all the time. They also become of benefit to you in terms of body development. The body builders have a chance to access vitamin supplements for their routine effort at muscles development and maintenance of good health. Many things exist that are great and unique about vitamin supplements, which is why many body builders are so proud of them.
Today, vitamin supplements are affordable. These types of supplements are very cheap when...